Carbon lock-in from fossil fuel supply infrastructure. Spills on Aging Enbridge Pipeline Have Topped 1 Million Gallons, Report Says. Chronic exposure to petroleum products may affect the nervous system, blood and kidneys. January 25. https://www.michigansthumb.com/news/article/Oil-Spills-Into-Lake-Superior-Tributary-7328575.php, 50. US refineries are very heavily regulated for emissions, inspections, and safety practices. 80. InsideClimate News, June 26. https://insideclimatenews.org/news/20120626/dilbit-diluted-bitumen-enbridge-kalamazoo-river-marshall-michigan-oil-spill-6b-pipeline-epa, 33. Hirji, Z. The primary U.S. subsidiary, Enbridge Energy L.P. has reported 173 incidents since 2002, along with significant numbers of spills from Enbridge Pipelines Ozark (39) and the North Dakota Pipeline Company (30). Living and working within 100 meters (328 feet) of a gas station increases exposure to toxic chemicals. However, in the case of new tar sands pipelines, the conclusion is clear. 81. Sometimes, you think there are no visible power lines in your area, but there may still be underground cables posing health risks. A low energy demand scenario for meeting the 1.5°C target and sustainable development goals without negative emission technologies. More details are found in Appendix A. By Mark Shwartz “The answer to the question is usually ‘no,’ but there are exceptions,” said Rob Jackson, a professor of Earth system science at Stanford University. See Appendix A for details on this calculation. Some states set land use policy or mandate various kinds of land use and development regulation to protect against natural hazards. 2017. Minnesota Public Utility Commission. Data on the age and cause of failure for these incidents show that new pipelines are not free from harmful incidents. That report finds that the carbon reserves in currently operating oil and gas fields are themselves sufficient to increase warming beyond 1.5°C, and currently operating coal, oil and gas projects would push warming beyond 2°C. An expert on the health impacts of fossil-fuel extraction, Jackson has studied groundwater quality at oil and gas fields throughout the United States. Witness Says Enbridge’s Wisconsin Pipeline ‘Blew Like an Oil Well.’ InsideClimate News, August 1. https://insideclimatenews.org/news/20120801/enbridge-oil-pipeline-wisconsin-phmsa-epa-water-fine-kalamazoo-dilbit-diluted-bitumen-safety, 55. The evidence shows that while old pipelines are indeed risky, new pipelines also spill. Besides structural issues, Jackson and his colleagues have identified problems associated with hydraulic fracturing, or fracking - pumping pressurized sand, water and chemicals underground to crack open rocks and release trapped reservoirs of oil and gas. CBC, October 29. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/pipeline-safety-canada-lags-u-s-on-making-datapublic-1.2254793, 30. Three early spills are listed as Williams Pipeline, prior to a 2003 name change. Enbridge. Meeting these reductions in oil demand will require profound changes in global energy trends, investment, infrastructure, and political culture. Social Cost of Carbon: Enbridge’s Line 3. https://www.edockets.state.mn.us/EFiling/edockets/searchDocuments.do?method=showPoup&documentId=%7B806A765E-0000-C118-86D6-0C8B470CCF0D%7D&documentTitle=20179-135432-01, 87. http://pstrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/2015-PST-Briefing-Paper-12-Emergency-Response-and-Spill-Response-Planning.pdf, 84. Memory usage: 2225.91KB, Tips to Get Rid of Armpit Stains from Shirts, Symptoms of Electric Shock and First Aid & Treatment, The Negative Effects of Watching Television for Adults and Kids. U.S. Its current corporate structure includes a master limited partnership Enbridge Energy Partners L.P. (EEP), a limited liability company Enbridge Energy Management, L.L.C. 2005. Carbon Tracker Initiative. Honor the Earth. Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Midwest: Minnesota. It means even if you think you're far from power lines, it is still a good idea to take some protections from EMFs. The IEA finds that most of the reductions in oil demand in the SDS model come in the transport sector. Pipeline crews cleaning up oil leak near Neche, N.D. January 11. http://www.grandforksherald.com/news/2117192-pipeline-crews-cleaning-oil-leak-near-neche-nd, 51. MN FEIS. National Energy Board. A report by Oil Change International provides a different metric for dividing up the global carbon budget. In California, Jackson has identified hundreds of fracking wells drilled into aquifers located less than 2,000 feet below the surface. Both incidents were due to pipe seam failures dating from the line’s 1998 construction, a problem that had previous been identified by inspectors during the construction phase. Enbridge. Enbridge Announces Definitive Agreements to Acquire All Public Equity of Enbridge Energy Partners and Enbridge Energy Management, Achieves Significant Milestones Toward Corporate Structure Simplification. In Minnesota, the project would cross 25,765 acres of high vulnerability water table aquifers, 26,382 acres of high groundwater contamination susceptibility, and 16,299 acres of high pollution sensitivity.  Given their high carbon lifecycle emissions and comparatively high breakeven prices, it is clear that expanded tar sands extraction is inconsistent with a healthy global climate. New York Times, August 29. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/29/science/lake-superior-algae-toxic.html, 17.  Enbridge’s nearby Line 5 pipeline has spilled over one million gallons in its 64-year history. InsideClimate News, April 26. https://insideclimatenews.org/news/25042017/enbridge-pipeline-mackinac-line-5-michigan-oil-spill-risk, 63. It is very important that landowners review their right-of-way contracts to clearly understand what both the pipeline company and the landowner are and are not allowed to do within the right-of-way. Breathing petroleum vapors can cause nervous system effects (such as headache, nausea, and dizziness) and respiratory irritation. 2015. https://www.greenpeace.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/OffTrackInvestorBriefing.pdf; Greenpeace & Oil Change International. Natural gas consists primarily of methane, a greenhouse gas that’s more than 30 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period. In May 2012, two people were killed and three people were injured after a “two vehicle collision” with an Enbridge pipeline resulted in a 1,500 barrel (63,000 gallon) oil spill and a fire in New Lenox, Illinois. In the U.S., hydraulic fracturing is typically regulated by individual states. 2017. Table 18.104.22.168-4.  It is undoubtedly true that aging pipelines pose serious risks, but new pipelines are not risk free, and given the long proposed lifetimes of these projects, new pipes eventually turn into old ones. 2017. The time is ripe for real climate leadership to show the way forward. Figure 7 shows total primary energy demand from oil for a number of different energy models; a common feature among models limiting warming to 2°C or 1.5°C is that global oil demand peaks soon and is followed by a rapid decline toward the second half of the century – spanning the economic lifetime of new oil pipelines. Instructions for Form PHMSA F 7000-1 (Rev 10-2011). “We found a surprising number of places where companies are fracking directly into shallow freshwater aquifers,” he said. Technician Alissa White collects drinking water near an oil However, the "Google Translate" option may assist you in reading it in other languages. Pipeline safety: Canada lags U.S. on making data public. Knowing what to do, and what not to do, could save your life. Huron Daily Tribune.
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