As in the wildebeest, the coat may be marked with prominent or faint stripes. They hold small territories into which other members of the species are not allowed to enter. Other bovid species also occur in Europe, Asia, and North America. Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; (not comparable) Of or pertaining to cattle. These cells are known as pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) and are capable of trapping blood cells, bacteria, and particulates from circulating blood by endocytosis (Winkler, 1988). Mature adult males (8-9 years) remain alone most of the year, joining the groups in the late summer in time for the autumn rut.  The offspring disperse at the time of adolescence, and males need must acquire territories prior to mating.  The tragelaphines, cattle, sheep, and goats are gregarious and not territorial.  Early in their evolutionary history, the bovids split into two main clades: Boodontia (of Eurasian origin) and Aegodontia (of African origin). The Bovidae comprise the biological family of cloven-hoofed , ruminant vertebrates that includes bison , African buffalo , water buffalo , antelopes , sheep , goats , muskoxen , and domestic cattle . Copulation generally takes a few seconds. 2010). , Most bovids are diurnal, although a few such as the buffalo, bushbuck, reedbuck, and grysbok are exceptions. These results were independent of body size. Differences between bovine complement and the complement system of other mammals. Congress on Controversies in Bovine Health, Industry & Economics (CoBo), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bovinae&oldid=984957019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  Females possess horns only in half of the bovid genera, and females in these genera are heavier than those in the rest. 2011). The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. Although follicle deviation occurs in B. indicus, when the dominant follicle reaches 5 to 7.5 mm in diameter compared with 8 to 10 mm in B. taurus, it is possible that additional growth is necessary for the dominant follicle to acquire ovulatory capacity in both breeds.  Reduncinae and Hippotraginae species depend on unstable food sources, but the latter are specially adapted to arid areas.  However, all the Hippotraginae (including the gemsbok) have pale bodies and faces with conspicuous markings. If horns become entangled, the opponents move in a circular manner to unlock them. , Molecular studies have supported monophyly in the family Bovidae (a group of organisms comprises an ancestral species and all their descendants). Gazelles usually box, and in serious fights may clash and fence, consisting of hard blows from short range. Bone meal is an important fertilizer rich in calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen, effective in removing soil acidity. Females may be slightly larger than males, possibly due to competition among females for the acquisition of territories. , A controversy exists about the recognition of Peleinae and Patholopinae, comprising the genera Pelea and Pantholops respectively, as subfamilies. Serious fights leading to injury are rare. Mothers also use vocal communication to locate their calves if they get separated. , In bovids, the third and fourth metapodials are combined into the cannon bone. Hippotraginae (3 genera)  The earliest Hippotragine fossils date back to the late Miocene, and were excavated from sites such as Lothagam and Awash Valley.