The animals flee at high speeds (50 kph, 30 mph) into the cliff faces. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (2003) Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). (1997), Reduncinae (kobs, reedbucks, waterbucks etc. Oestrus, the period of sexual receptivity, lasts between 30 minutes and 27 hours in B. taurus (Lopez et al. Which gender has horns.
 The sheep, synonymous with the goat in Chinese mythology, is the eighth animal of the Chinese zodiac, and a symbol of filial piety.
, The present genera of Alcelaphinae appeared in the Pliocene. L. Jill McCutcheon, Raymond J. Geor, in Equine Sports Medicine and Surgery (Second Edition), 2014.  Once the male is assured that the female is in estrus, he begins courtship displays; these displays vary greatly from the elaborate marches among gregarious species to the fervent licking of female genitalia among solitary species. Duikers inhabit the equatorial rainforests, sitatunga, and lechwe occur near swamps, eland inhabit grasslands, springbok and oryx occur in deserts, bongo and anoa live in dense forests, and mountain goats and takin live at high altitudes.
Cattle are kept as livestock almost everywhere except in parts of India and Nepal, where they are considered sacred by most Hindus. The other two species are the horse and pig. This antelope hardly displays aggression, and tends to isolate itself or form loose herds, though in a favourable habitat, several bushbuck may be found quite close to one another. Equine sweat, unlike that of humans, is isotonic to slightly hypertonic relative to plasma.18,22,28 Equine sweat is also unique in having a high protein content, a consequence of the presence of latherin. Generally, bovids direct their attacks on the opponent's head rather than its body.
Because of this adaptation of Bovidae, the respiratory depressive effects of anesthetics may impose a more profound effect on blood gases than in other species, due to a decrease in respiratory rate and tidal volume. Horns on bovidae are.
In this same study, fasted cows were shown to regurgitate more often and in larger volumes than nonfasted cows (Blaze et al., 1988). Wild sheep and goats belong in the family Bovidae and are grouped in the subfamily Caprinae. Social activity and feeding usually peak during dawn and dusk.
Males.  The horns of females are usually smaller than those of males, and are sometimes of a different shape. Normally, sweating is initiated at a specific core temperature and continues in proportion to the increase in core temperature.31 demonstrated that increases in sweating rate at three different exercise intensities (40%, 65%, and 90% of ) were closely related to elevations in carotid artery blood temperature (Fig.  Scent glands and sebaceous glands are often present.  Richard Despard Estes suggested that females mimic male secondary sexual characteristics like horns to protect their male offspring from dominant males. Overhunting, habitat loss, and disease transfer from domestic sheep and goats are responsible for many population declines. In 2000, American biologist George Schaller and palaeontologist Elisabeth Vrba suggested the inclusion of Pelea in Reduncinae, though the grey rhebok, the sole species of Pelea, is highly different from kobs and reduncines in morphology. The animals are often seen chasing each other at breakneck speeds up sheer rock faces, covering hundreds of meters' elevation in a few seconds32 (Figure 50-1). In some species, neonate bovids remain hidden for a week to two months, regularly nursed by their mothers; in other species, neonates are followers, accompanying their dams, rather than tending to remain hidden. , The middle Miocene marked the spread of the bovids into China and the Indian subcontinent. This early split between Boodontia and Aegodontia has been attributed to the continental divide between these land masses. The kinete migrates to the salivary gland as the tick is completing its molt, and development begins when the tick commences feeding or is stimulated in some other way. , A controversy exists about the recognition of Peleinae and Patholopinae, comprising the genera Pelea and Pantholops respectively, as subfamilies. Other large bovids that have been domesticated but which remain within the ranges of their wild ancestors are the water buffalo (from the Indian water buffalo), domestic yak (from the wild yak), zebu (from the Indian aurochs), gayal (from the gaur) and Bali cattle (from the banteng).
Thus, sexual dimorphism is almost absent. 2005, Mollo et al. While small bovids forage in dense and closed habitat, larger species feed on high-fiber vegetation in open grasslands. ), Hippotraginae (sable antelopes, oryxes etc.
, Excluding the cephalophines (duikers), tragelaphines (spiral-horned antelopes) and the neotragines, most African bovids are gregarious and territorial.  The delay in male sexual maturation is more visible in sexually dimorphic species, particularly the reduncines, probably due to competition among males. The decrease in progesterone (P4) and increase in E2 near the time of ovulation are responsible for overt oestrous behaviour and for the preovulatory GnRH/LH surge.
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